FOR most of human history rich people had the most leisure. In
“Downton Abbey”, a drama about the British upper classes of the early
20th century, one aloof aristocrat has never heard of the term
“weekend”: for her, every day is filled with leisure. On the flip side,
the poor have typically slogged. Hans-Joachim Voth, an economic
historian at the University of Zurich, shows that in 1800 the average
English worker laboured for 64 hours a week. “In the 19th century you
could tell how poor somebody was by how long they worked,” says Mr Voth.
In today’s advanced economies things are different. Overall working
hours have fallen over the past century. But the rich have begun to work
longer hours than the poor. In 1965 men with a college degree, who tend
to be richer, had a bit more leisure time than men who had only
completed high school. But by 2005 the college-educated had eight hours
less of it a week than the high-school grads. Figures from the American
Time Use Survey, released last year, show that Americans with a
bachelor’s degree or above work two hours more each day than those
without a high-school diploma. Other research shows that the share of
college-educated American men regularly working more than 50 hours a
week rose from 24% in 1979 to 28% in 2006, but fell for high-school
dropouts. The rich, it seems, are no longer the class of leisure.
In this section
* Barbarians at middle age
* FICC and thin
* Something rotten
* From cancer to pimple
* Rehabilitation and attack
* Patchy progress
* Put your money where your mail is
* Credit where credit’s due
* Nice work if you can get out
* Oxford University
There are a number of explanations. One has to do with what
economists call the “substitution effect”. Higher wages make leisure
more expensive: if people take time off they give up more money. Since
the 1980s the salaries of those at the top have risen strongly, while
those below the median have stagnated or fallen. Thus rising inequality
encourages the rich to work more and the poor to work less.
The “winner-takes-all” nature of modern economies may amplify the
substitution effect. The scale of the global market means businesses
that innovate tend to reap huge gains (think of YouTube, Apple and
Goldman Sachs). The returns for beating your competitors can be
enormous. Research from Peter Kuhn of the University of California,
Santa Barbara, and Fernando Lozano of Pomona College shows that the same
is true for highly skilled workers. Although they do not immediately
get overtime pay for “extra” hours, the most successful workers, often
the ones putting in the most hours, may reap gains from winner-takes-all
markets. Whereas in the early 1980s a man working 55 hours a week
earned 11% more than a man putting in 40 hours in the same type of
occupation, that gap had increased to 25% by the turn of the millennium.
Economists tend to assume that the substitution effect must at some
stage be countered by an “income effect”: as higher wages allow people
to satisfy more of their material needs, they forgo extra work and
instead choose more leisure. A billionaire who can afford his own island
has little incentive to work that extra hour. But new social mores may
have flipped the income effect on its head.
The status of work and leisure in the rich world has changed since
the days of “Downton Abbey”. Back in 1899 Thorstein Veblen, an American
economist who dabbled in sociology, offered his take on things. He
argued that leisure was a “badge of honour”. Rich people could get
others to do the dirty, repetitive work—what Veblen called “industry”.
Yet Veblen’s leisure class was not idle. Rather they engaged in
“exploit”: challenging and creative activities such as writing,
philanthropy and debating.
Veblen’s theory needs updating, according to a recent paper from
researchers at Oxford University*. Work in advanced economies has become
more knowledge-intensive and intellectual. There are fewer really dull
jobs, like lift-operating, and more glamorous ones, like fashion design.
That means more people than ever can enjoy “exploit” at the office.
Work has come to offer the sort of pleasures that rich people used to
seek in their time off. On the flip side, leisure is no longer a sign of
social power. Instead it symbolises uselessness and unemployment.
The evidence backs up the sociological theory. The occupations in
which people are least happy are manual and service jobs requiring
little skill. Job satisfaction tends to increase with the prestige of
the occupation. Research by Arlie Russell Hochschild of the University
of California, Berkeley, suggests that as work becomes more
intellectually stimulating, people start to enjoy it more than home
life. “I come to work to relax,” one interviewee tells Ms Hochschild.
And wealthy people often feel that lingering at home is a waste of time.
A study in 2006 revealed that Americans with a household income of more
than $100,000 indulged in 40% less “passive leisure” (such as watching
TV) than those earning less than $20,000.
Condemned to relax
What about less educated workers? Increasing leisure time probably
reflects a deterioration in their employment prospects as low-skill and
manual jobs have withered. Since the 1980s, high-school dropouts have
fared badly in the labour market. In 1965 the unemployment rate of
American high-school graduates was 2.9 percentage points higher than for
those with a bachelor’s degree or more. Today it is 8.4 points higher.
“Less educated people are not necessarily buying their way into
leisure,” explains Erik Hurst of the University of Chicago. “Some of
that time off work may be involuntary.” There may also be change in the
income effect for those on low wages. Information technology, by opening
a vast world of high-quality and cheap home entertainment, means that
low-earners do not need to work as long to enjoy a reasonably satisfying